Prints and Solids

Periodically in fancy women's clothing stores, like those in the Cherry Creek area, there are special events called "trunk shows." They are advertised in the papers, and attendees often appear later in the society pages. In these shows, a representative of some haute designer or maker brings in trunks full of new, high-end garments that will be available at the shop and nowhere else, and only for a limited time.

Right now, Rule Gallery is presenting the art-world equivalent of a trunk show, an exhibit with the bare-bones title Universal Limited Art Editions, which is also the name of the fine-print maker that provided all the pieces on display. Gallery director Robin Rule invited ULAE's master printer, Bill Goldston, to show off a group of selections from the famous presses.

Goldston was in town a few weeks ago to oversee the installation and lecture on the history of ULAE. And what a history it is, spanning, as it does, the entire development of the New York school since the late 1950s.

Tatyana Grosman, an essentially self-taught printer, founded ULAE. The Russian-born Jewish emigré had fled the Holocaust in Europe in 1943 with her husband, noted painter Maurice Grosman, and they settled in the village of Islip, New York, on Long Island. In 1955, Maurice had a major heart attack, and it was left to Tatyana to earn a living for the couple. At the time, she was not a printer, but because of either a fortuitous coincidence or an act of fate, the Grosmans had earlier found a pair of valuable Bavarian lithography stones in the yard of their cottage. Not only that, but a neighbor was selling a press that fit the stones, and a local commercial printer offered to show Grosman how to use it.

At first Grosman made money by publishing reproductions of paintings by Mark Chagall, Grandma Moses and other artists popular at the time. But in 1957, Museum of Modern Art curator William Lieberman visited Grosman's cottage press, which indirectly led to the establishment of ULAE: While Lieberman was impressed with the quality of her prints -- she was a natural master printer -- he did not like the idea of her doing reproductions.

Grosman was already connected to the New York art world. In particular, she knew Larry Rivers, the pioneering pop-art painter, having met him years before on a transatlantic cruise. After Liberman's visit to Islip, she went to Rivers's studio with the concept of doing an artists' book, combining his illustrations with the poems of Frank O'Hara. When she got to Rivers's place -- surprise, surprise -- O'Hara was there. (This is not as big of a coincidence as it sounds, since Rivers and O'Hara, both now deceased, were lovers.) The two went for Grosman's idea, and the result was the evocatively titled Stones. It was published in 1957, the first fine-print edition ever undertaken by ULAE.

Grosman's timing was another lucky break -- like finding the lithography stones in the first place -- because print-friendly pop art was a rising star, and ULAE's wagon was hitched to it. Many pop pioneers found their way to Islip -- most notably Jasper Johns, whom Grosman had called and invited. Johns then told Robert Rauschenberg about the press (just like Rivers and O'Hara, the two artists were lovers at the time), and each did their first lithographs at ULAE. Johns and Rauschenberg still produce work with the printmaker, and examples by both are featured in the Rule show.

As the '60s dawned, printmaking, which had been out of vogue since the 1940s, enjoyed a major revival, in no small part because of interest in the medium by cutting-edge artists such as Rivers, Johns and Rauschenberg. This print-mania helped ULAE succeed and attracted many of the most important artists of the day to have their work done at the newly prestigious facility.

In 1964, almost one hundred prints pulled by ULAE were used for the first exhibit in MoMA's graphic galleries, starting a still-observed tradition by which MoMA acquires a print from every ULAE edition.

Goldston, who brought the show to Rule, joined ULAE in 1969 as a printmaker specializing in the photosensitive stones preferred by artists like Rauschenberg. A technical wizard and master of a wide array of printing methods, Goldston became an important player, and in 1976, when Maurice Grosman died, Tatyana urged Goldston to run the studio and business for her. After her death, in 1982, he took over as owner.

Goldston expanded ULAE and added larger and more modern equipment, supplementing the intaglio and lithograph presses with the latest things, including computer-driven inkjet printers. He also went out to recruit new talents beyond the core group of pop artists who were the printmaker's principal clients, including abstractionists, expressionists and even a magic realist or two.

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Michael Paglia is an art historian and writer whose columns have appeared in Westword since 1995; his essays on the visual arts have also been published in national periodicals including Art News, Architecture, Art Ltd., Modernism, Art & Auction and Sculpture Magazine. He taught art history at the University of Colorado Denver.
Contact: Michael Paglia