Calhoun: Wake-Up Call

True Lies

On Tuesday evening, after the following column went to press, Jon Lipsky got a call from the FBI telling him he was not allowed to discuss the Rocky Flats case. Lipsky read a statement to that effect at Wednesday's press conference and said nothing more. He was not wearing a suit.

On Monday, Jon Lipsky's biggest concern was whether he should wear a suit to the press conference where, for the first time, he would discuss publicly his concerns about the government turning the former Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant into a recreational area.

Lipsky had worn a suit on June 6, 1989, the day he'd led a raid on Rocky Flats. But then, he'd had to see a federal judge that morning to secure a search warrant -- the first ever served by the FBI on the federal government -- and at the plant, he says, he'd "be meeting with all the suits, including the Undersecretary of Energy." Lipsky, an FBI agent with an expertise in environmental crimes, had been on the case since 1987, when he and William Smith, an EPA agent also based in Denver, had started investigating conditions at Rocky Flats. It had taken Lipsky a long time to convince local environmental activists that he wasn't a plant, that he was seriously interested in conditions at a Department of Energy facility that was then still manufacturing plutonium triggers for nuclear weapons, weapons that might be used in the Cold War that had yet to melt away. But finally Lipsky had gotten to whistleblower Jim Stone, who'd told him about the missing plutonium and the incinerated plutonium.

In October 1988, Lipsky and Smith told U.S. Attorney Mike Norton that they wanted to raid Rocky Flats. He agreed, authorizing the agents to continue their investigation and even conduct aerial surveillance of the plutonium incinerator in building 771. By the following June, they were ready for Operation Desert Glow.

Rocky Flats officials thought the FBI was coming to give a briefing on environmental terrorists; they didn't know they were suspected of environmental crimes themselves. And then Lipsky showed up with the warrant.

The second day of the raid didn't go nearly as well: On instruction from U.S. Attorney General Dick Thornburgh, the Justice Department unsealed the 116-page affidavit Lipsky had used to secure the search warrant. That affidavit included an outline of the probe, as well as already-collected evidence of environmental crimes. The government's investigation into one of the government's most secret facilities was no longer a secret; plant managers now knew exactly what the agents were looking for.

Two months later, Colorado's first special grand jury was impaneled to consider the case of Rocky Flats. But that did not go according to plan, either. In the summer of 1991, the jurors were still hearing testimony when Lipsky learned that the Justice Department was looking to settle with Rockwell International, which had run the plant for the DOE. The jurors didn't find out about the deal until the judge told them that their work was done, that they could go home. Instead, they wrote a report outlining their investigation, one that named names and described events at Rocky Flats as an "ongoing criminal enterprise."

In March 1992, the judge sealed the grand jurors' report and signed off on a deal that fined Rockwell $18.5 million -- less than the company had been paid in bonuses for running the plant. And even though a redacted version of their report was later released, the grand jurors have been trying to tell the full story of Rocky Flats ever since. The most ambitious attempt yet came this past March with the publication of The Ambushed Grand Jury (, the book that attorney Caron Balkany wrote with grand jury foreman Wes McKinley, secrecy rules be damned.

Unlike the grand jurors, Lipsky had gotten to tell at least some of the story to Congress. Representative Howard Wolpe, chair of the Subcommittee on Investigations and Oversight, Science, Space and Technology, had decided to look into the Justice Department deal with Rockwell soon after it was announced. In the fall of 1992, Lipsky was subpoenaed to testify. He told the subcommittee that there was plenty of evidence of midnight plutonium-burning during a period when the incinerator was supposed to be shut down -- never mind the Justice Department's insistence that the incinerator had not been operating illegally (Rockwell had required that statement before agreeing to the settlement). Lipsky said that he disagreed with the plea deal and had never agreed that no individuals should be prosecuted. In fact, he testified that he had substantial evidence against "the number one, two and three level managers."

The Wolpe Report, published on January 4, 1993, concluded that the Justice Department had "bargained away the truth" about what happened at Rocky Flats. Three days later, the FBI transferred Lipsky to Los Angeles -- assigning the environmental expert to a gang unit.